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GIRLS’ EDUCATION

Background

Education is the main source behind the social and economic development of any nation. In this context, it is evident that both male and female population needs education for the progress of the country. In this aspect educating girls is an important aspect to check female illiteracy. It is important to understand the situation of literacy levels of male and female population in Karnataka in comparison with other States. Below table gives the female literacy levels of various States as per the 2001 Census conducted by Go I.

Table 1: Female Literacy Levels of Different States (In Descending Order):
SL.NO India / States / Union Territories Persons  Males Females
  INDIA 65.38 75.85 54.16 
1 Kerala 90.92  94.20  87.86 
2 Mizoram 88.49  90.69  86.13 
3 Lakshadweep 87.52  93.15  81.56 
4 Chandigarh 81.76  85.65  76.65 
5 Goa 82.32  88.88  75.51 
6 Andaman & Nicobar Islands* 81.18  86.07  75.29 
7 Delhi 81.82  87.37  75.00 
8 Pondicherry 81.49  88.89  74.13 
9 Daman & Diu 81.09  88.40  70.37 
10 Himachal Pradesh 77.13  86.02  68.08 
11 Maharashtra 77.27  86.27  67.51 
12 Tripura 73.66  81.47  65.41 
13 Tamil Nadu 73.47  82.33  64.55 
14 Punjab 69.95  75.63  63.55 
15 Nagaland 67.11  71.77  61.92 
16 Sikkim 69.68  76.73  61.46 
17 Meghalaya 63.31  66.14  60.41 
18 Uttaranchal 72.28  84.01  60.26 
19 West Bengal 69.22  77.58  60.22 
20 Manipur 68.87  77.87  59.70 
21 Gujarat 69.97  80.5 58.60 
22 Karnataka 67.04  76.29  57.45 
23 Haryana 68.59  79.25  56.31 
24 Assam 64.28  71.93  56.03 
25 Chhatisgarh 65.18  77.86  52.40 
26 Andhra Pradesh 61.11  70.85  51.17 
27 Orissa 63.61  75.95  50.97 
28 Madhya Pradesh 64.11  76.80  50.28 
29 Rajasthan 61.03  76.46  44.34 
30 Arunachal Pradesh 54.74  64.07  44.24 
31 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 60.03  73.32  42.99 
32 Uttar Pradesh 57.36  70.23  42.98 
33 Jammu and Kashmir 54.46  65.75  41.82 
34 Jharkhand 54.13  67.94  39.38 
35 Bihar 47.53  60.32  33.57 
    Total (EduSat)  
120.00

Source: GoI Census, 2001
It can be seen from the above table that Karnataka’s female literacy rates are marginally above the National average and placed in the 22nd position in the country.

Table 2: Comparative literacy rates of Karnataka and India
Literacy Rate 1991 2001
Male Fem. Total Gender Gap Male Fem Total Gender Gap
National 64.13 39.29 52.21 24.84 75.85 54.16 65.38 21.69
State 67.26 44.34 56.04 22.92 76.29 57.45 67.04 18.84

Source: GoI Census, 1991 and 2001
As per the above table, it can be seen that the State’s literacy rate has improved from 1991 to 2001. The State’s gender gap in literacy (18.84) and is slightly less than the national gender gap in literacy (21.69).

Table 3: Literacy Rates of Districts of Karnataka State (in descending order)
SL.NO Name of the District Male Female Total
1 Bangalore 88.36 78.98 83.91
2 D.K 89.74 77.39 83.47
3 Udupi 86.59 74.05 79.87
4 Kodagu 83.80 72.53 78.17
5 Uttara Kannada 84.48 68.48 76.59
6 Shimoga 82.32 67.24 74.86
7 Chickmagalore 80.68 64.47 72.63
8 Dharwad 81.04 62.2 71.87
9 Hassan 78.29 59.32 68.75
10 Haveri 77.94 57.6 68.09
11 Davangere 76.44 58.45 67.67
12 Tumkur 76.88 57.18 67.19
13 Gadag 79.55 52.58 66.27
14 Bangalore Rural 74.43 55.12 65.00
15 Chitradurga 74.69 54.62 64.88
16 Belguam 75.89 52.53 64.42
17 Mysore 71.30 55.81 63.69
18 Kolar 73.14 52.81 63.14
19 Bidar 73.29 50.01 61.98
20 Mandya 70.71 51.62 61.21
21 Bellary 69.59 46.16 58.04
22 Bagalkot 71.31 44.1 57.81
23 Bijapur 68.10 46.19 57.46
24 Koppal 69.15 40.76 55.02
25 Chamrajnagar 59.25 43.02 51.26
26 Gulbarga 62.52 38.4 50.65
27 Raichur 62.02 36.84 49.54
State Average Total 76.29 57.45 67.04
 National Average   75.95 54.16 65.38

Source: GoI Census, 2001

The above table provides the data on the female literacy rates of different districts in descending order. 11 district’s female literacy rates are above the State female literacy rate (57.45) and 15 district’s female literacy rates are above the National female literacy rate (54.16).

In order to boost the commitment to Universalize Elementary Education, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Programme was started. SSA has implemented many programmes and interventions to ensure the equal and universal participation of all children regardless of religion, caste, creed, sex etc. Thus, special attention to certain disadvantaged groups of children would be imperative if the goal of UEE is to be achieved.Girls, who comprise almost one half of the eligible child population, fall into this category of children requiring special attention as their participation in primary education has been far from the desirable.
Special programmes to promote education of girls have been under taken by the State Government and also through Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. In the context,SSA has launched the KGBV and NPEGEL Programmes to improve the girl’s education in 62 Educationally Backward blocks of the State. These programmes are being implemented in those blocks where the rural female literacy rate is below the national rural female literacy rate (46.13) and the gender gap is more than national gender gap (21.59) .

Table 4: List of EBBs where NPEGEL and KGBV programmes are being implemented:
SL.NO District Block Rural Female Literacy Rate Gender gap in Literacy
2 Ramanagara Channapatna 45.96 21.92
3 Dharwad Dharwad 45.63 23.53
4 Kolar Bangarpet 45.6 24.36
5 Kolar Srinivasapur 45.49 25.43
6 Chikkaballapur Gouribiddanur 45.38 22.03
8 Hassan Hole Narsipur 45.14 26.39
9 Mysore Krishnarajanagar 45.06 22.74
10 Gadag Rona 44.8 33.03
11 Bidar Aurad 44.53 24.99
13 Dharwad Kalghatgi 44.43 29.96
12 Gadag Mundargi 44.43 29.96
14 Chikkaballapur Chintamani 43.4 24.19
15 Bellary Kudligi 43.38 27.24
16 Bidar Basavakalyan 43.34 27.34
17 Chitradurga Challakere 43.22 24.14
18 Kolar Mulebagilu 43.09 25.86
7 Bellary Hagaribommanahalli 42.16 24.26
19 Davanagere Harapanahalli 42.16 24.26
21 Bidar Humnabad 42.01 25.52
20 Belgaum Rayabag 42.01 23.15
22 Bidar Bidar 41.64 23.2
23 Tumkur Pavagada 41.02 25.69
24 Belgaum Parasagad 39.88 29.18
25 Chikkaballapur Gudibande 39.51 24.01
26 Bijapur B Bagewadi 38.94 29.91
27 Koppal Koppal 38.85 29.55
28 Bijapur Indi 38.24 26.3
29 Bagalkot Hungund 37.71 35.76
30 Gulbarga Aland 37.59 27.52
31 Bagalkot Bagalkot 37.57 32.9
32 Bagalkot Jamkhandi 37.49 23.67
33 Bijapur Bijapur 37.44 25.96
34 Koppal Yelbarga 36.79 32.31
35 Belgaum Gokak 36.65 28.07
36 Chitradurga Molakalmuru 36.32 26.09
37 Bijapur Muddebihal 36.29 34.44
38 Bagalkot Mudhol 36.18 25.76
39 Belgaum Ramadurg 35.99 30.43
40 Gulbarga Afzalpur 35.79 26.81
41 Gulbarga Gulbarga 35.51 27.09
42 Koppal Gangawati 35.47 26.61
43 Bijapur Sindgi 35.42 29.91
44 Bellary Sandur 35.09 26.28
45 Chikkaballapur Bagepalli 35.08 24.54
46 Bagalkot Bilgi 34.5 28.93
47 Bellary Hospet 34.31 25.02
48 Raichur Sindhnur 34.26 28.55
1 Bagalkot Badami 33.89 32.69
49 Gulbarga Chincholi 33.21 27.92
50 Koppal Kushtagi 31.76 34.19
51 Bellary Bellary 30.97 27.59
52 Raichur Lingsugur 30.2 31.03
53 Gulbarga Chitapur 29.3 23.95
54 Raichur Manvi 28.14 25.03
55 Gulbarga Jevargi 28.01 28.38
56 Gulbarga Sedam 27.92 23.3
57 Yadgir Shorapur 27.06 26.38
58 Bellary Siruguppa 26.46 27.92
59 Raichur Raichur 24.79 26.93
60 Raichur Devadurga 24.35 24.35
61 Yadgir Shahpur 23.13 22.61
62 Yadgir Yadgir 18.7 22.9

Source: GoI Census, 2001

As per the above table, 48 blocks are situated in Northern Karnataka region and the remaining 14 blocks are in southern region. The districts like Yadgir, Raichur, Gulbarga, Bellary, Koppal, Bijapur and Bagalkot have more EBBs.
ii)  Initiates of the State Government to promote education of girls
Free supply of Uniforms, Text books, School bags, Note books, Fee exemption and Mid-day meal programme are some of the programmes being implemented by the State Government to promote education of children and some of them are focus on the education of the girl child.  Bicycle scheme for the rural girls and boys encourage children from BPL family to commute easily to nearby Higher Primary School or Secondary School thereby directly improving the attendance and retention rate of girls. 
 The State government is providing free education to all the categories of girls up to Class XII of Government and Aided institutions.  Free text books to all the children of Class I to VIII.  All the girls and SC/ST boys studying in Aided institution from class I to VIII have received free text books under SSA during 2009-10.  Free supply of school bags and note books have been made to SC/ST girls of Class V to VII.  However free supply of uniform is made to all the children of Class I to X. Sarva Shikshana Abhiya initiatives have brought positive changes in the girls’ education scenario. This could be seen from the educational indicators

Table 5 : Gender Gap in Enrollment and Gender Parity index
Details 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10

Gender Gap-Primary

2.96

3.19

3.12

3.20

3.32

Gender Gap-Upper Primary

3.33

4.07

3.45

3.66

3.80

Gender Parity Index-Primary

0.94

0.94

0.94

0.94

0.94

Gender Parity Index-Upper Primary

0.93

0.92

0.93

0.93

0.93

Source: DISE

Table 6: Dropout rate of Girls
Details 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
Drop Out-Primary 9.00 6.70 6.41 4.60
Drop Out-Upper Primary 17.40 13.30 12.00 8.30

Source: DISE

It is evident from the above tables that there are positive changes in the development of girls’ Education.

  • Retention Strategies.

Free supply of Uniforms, Text books, School bags and Mid-day meals have been provided under State sector for retaining the girls in primary/higher primary schools.  The State government is providing free education to all categories of girls up to 12th standard in government and aided institutions.  Free supply of text books to all the children from 1 to 7th standard is made under State sector funds.  Free supply of school bags and note books are made to SC/ST girls of 5th to 7th class.  However, free supply of uniforms is made to all the children of 1 to 10 standards. Convergence is made with the scheme of “Total Sanitation Campaign” under the Department of Rural Development and Panchayath Raj at the district level with District Zilla Panchayat Offices.  The infrastructure gap in toilets and drinking water is being getting narrowed at the district level with the convergence strategies. 

  • Achievement level of girls –

As per the KSQAO assessment of 2007-08 the girls’ achievement is given in the on going table.

Table 7: Achievement of Girls during 2007-08 as per KSQAO
SL.NO Class All girls Category wise girls achievement
SC ST Min Others

1

5

72.15

67.96

69.02

73.49

74.1

2

7

72.99

68.85

69.53

74.45

74.63

Source: KSQAO, 2007-08

Table 8: Achievement of Girls during 2008-09 as per KSQAO
Medium 5th Std 7th std 8th std
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
Kannada 74.41 76.44 70.43 73.23 49.46 53.08
English 0 0 0 0 49.27 54.16
Urdu 75.55 79.39 74.60 78.63 60.8 66.19
Marati 76.63 78.34 74.92 76.66 53.43 57.4
Tamil 74.01 77.95 72.62 75.66 52.0 60.07
Telugu 72.21 74.20 69.27 70.67 59.02 64.11

Source: KSQAO 2008-09
It can be seen from the above table that girls’ achievement is more than that of boys for all the Standards and for all the mediums.

Times of India Date: 23-01-2010

It can be observed from the times of India report that the Gender disparities are coming down in State of Karnataka. This can be attributed to various interventions of State and Union Governments including SSA programmes like KGBV and NPEGEL.

Girls Education under Innovative Activities:

Adolescent Camps:

Educating adolescent girls may perhaps be the only way to put an end to the seemingly never-ending cycle of issues like dropout, low attendance, and low age of marriage and low status of women.
Specific inputs are necessary to enhance their self-esteem and self-confidence to familiarize them with the status and problems related to women.  Equally, discussion and orientation on health, hygiene, menstruation and related physiological knowledge which are not being covered as part of the regular curriculum, help students to explore a universe beyond their textbooks.
In this regard, a three day awareness camp (jagruthi shibhira) for the adolescent girls was conducted under innovative activity for girls.  This also aims to prevent adolescent girls from dropping out of education system.
36 camps per each district have been sanctioned with the cost of Rs. 5.5 lakh per district.  Out of Rs.5.5 lakh, Rs.2.75 lakh is utilised from UDC and Rs.2.75 lakh from minority community intervention. NGOs involved in the empowerment of women are involved in conducting 3 days camps for the adolescent girls. In few districts, BRC and CRC faculty in association with local experts like doctors, teachers conduct these adolescent camps.  
The 03 day residential training programme with a cost of Rs.15, 000 covers 50 girl children; attempts to educate girls regarding puberty. Health related aspects; empowerment; child rights, solve the problem through scientific method; Local Doctors, teachers. Educationists function as resource persons. The camp is of residential in nature. These camps are conducted under the guidance of Block level functionaries, Block Gender C, CGC, and  CRPs . The camps are interactive in nature. Through these camps girls get additional information which help them to face life with better confidence.

 

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